Klaus Auer and Tim Norris (2001)
"ArrierosAlife" a Multi-Agent Approach Simulating the Evolution of a Social System: Modeling the Emergence of Social Networks with "Ascape"
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation
vol. 4, no. 1,
<https://www.jasss.org/4/1/6.html>
To cite articles published in the Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 10-Jan-01 Published: 31-Jan-01
Figure 1. Torus |
Figure 2. Von Neumann neighborhood and Moore neighborhood |
[10] | NumAgencyLocations | the number of agency cells |
[10] | MaxAgencyClients | the maximum number of tourists an agency can support |
[1] | MinAgencyClients | the minimum number of tourists an agency will support |
[15] | MaxAgencyTripTime | the maximum trip time for an agency (days) |
[5] | MinAgencyTripTime | the minimum trip time for an agency (days) |
[10] | NumTouristLocations | the initial number of tourist cells |
[5] | MaxTouristClients | the maximum number of independent tourists to appear |
[1] | MinTouristClients | the minimum number of independent tourists to appear |
[10] | MaxTouristTripTime | the maximum trip time for an independent tourist (days) |
[3] | MinTouristTripTime | the minimum trip time for an independent tourist (days) |
[4] | TouristGowBack | the chance for the grid that tourists will appear (as 1/x ) |
[1] | setLocation (as random unoccupied cell in the grid) |
[2] | setVision (random from min to max) |
[3] | setNormVision (as Vision) |
[4] | setChildren (random from min to max) |
[5] | setFieldsOwned (random from min to max) |
[6] | setBurrosOwned (random from min to max accounting for number of fields owned) |
[7] | setWealth (as a product of vision and burros owned) |
[8] | setFriends (as a blank list) |
[9] | setCooperation (as random boolean) |
[10] | setName (as a number according to numerical order in initialization) |
[30] | NumAgents | the number of agents |
[5] | MaxInitialBurros | the maximum initial number burros |
[0] | MinInitialBurros | the minimum initial number of burros |
[2] | MaxInitialFieldSize | the maximum initial field size |
[0] | MinInitialFieldSize | the minimum initial field size |
[5] | MaxVision | the maximum vision |
[1] | MinVision | the minimum vision |
Guide Rule | ||
[5] | BurroRental | the cost to rent a burro from a friend (daily) |
[5] | TripCost | the profit from taking one client to the mountains (daily) |
Live Rule | ||
[100] | BurroCost | the cost to buy a new burro |
[150] | FieldCost | the cost to buy a new field |
[0.33] | FieldForBurro | number of fields needed for maintaining one burro |
[30] | PercentToSave | lower limit on what part of wealth can be spent |
[0.1] | ChildCost | the daily cost to maintain a child |
Change Cooperation Epstein 2D Rule | ||
[0.05] | CoopCutOffFreq | limit on comparing various frequencies of cooperating and not cooperating neighbors (within this limit they are considered equal) |
[0.1] | CoopNoise | factor for agents to change cooperation randomly (01) |
[0.20] | CoopReset | lower limit of cooperating population (%) before cooperation values are reset |
Saving Model Snapshots (not a rule) | ||
[120] | DrawInterval | iteration count between saving snapshots of the model |
Figure 3.1. Snap shot of evolved network after 300 iterations (all actors and all social ties; arrieros = yellow; travel agencies = red; individual travelers = blue) |
Figure 3.2. All Arrieros (N = 100) and their ties of borrowing/lending donkeys are displayed |
Figure 3.3. Only Arrieros who have a borrowing relation established are shown (blue ties are bi-directed; numbers on the lines indicate the frequency) |
/* regular expenses */ [1] Wealth = Wealth - NumChildren * ChildCost /* investment options */ [2] If FieldsOwned > (BurrosOwned + 1) * FieldsForBurro Then [3] If BurroCost < WEALTH(1-PERCENTTOSAVE) THEN [4] BURROSOWNED = BurrosOwned + 1 [5] Wealth = Wealth - BurrosCost [6] End If [7] Else [8] If FieldCost < Wealth(1-PercentToSave) Then [9] FieldsOwned = FieldsOwned + 1 [10] Wealth = Wealth - FieldCost [11] End If [12] End If
Figure 4. Von-Neumann neighborhood - vision two |
[1] If Not Guiding Then [2] VisibleCells[array] = CellsVisible Within Vision (includingCurrentLocation) /* note that VisibleCells[1] is the CurrentLocation of the agent */ [3] BestValue = ResourceValue of VisibleCells[1] [4] Loop Through All VisibleCells[array] [5] If (ResourceValue of VisibleCells[step] > BestValue) Then [6] If (VisibleCells[step] is Available) Then [7] BestValue = ResourceValue of VisibleCells[step] [8] End If [9] End If [10] End Loop /* if the agent found a resource */ [11] If BestValue <> 0 Then /* This if makes sure that the agent is not sitting on a resource */ [12] If Location of BestValue <> CurrentLocation Then [13] Move To Location of BestValue [14] Else [15] Move in Random direction within Vision [16] End If /* if the agent found no resources move randomly */ [17] Else [18] Move in Random direction within Vision [19] End If /* move randomly if agent is Guiding */ [20] Else [21] Move in Random direction within Vision [22] End If
/* the first part is to start consuming a resource and rent burros if needed */ /* if the agent is located at a resource */ [1] If ResourceValue of CurrentLocation > 0 Then /* can the agent consume without help */ [2] If BurrosOwned > ResourceValue of CurrentLocation Then [3] Start Consuming Resource [4] Set Guiding flag to TRUE /* can the agent consume with help of friends */ [5] Else [6] If Can Rent needed burros from Friends[] Then [7] RentBurros from Friends[first with enough] [8] Start Consuming Resource [9] Set Guiding flag TRUE /* can the agent find a new friend to help consume */ [10] Else [11] VisibleAgents[array] = AgentsVisible Within Vision exclude Self [12] Loop Through VisibleAgents[] [13] If VisibleAgent[step] is Cooperating Then [14] If BurrosOwned by VisibleAgent[step] > BurrosNeeded Then [15] RentBurros from VisibleAgent[step] [16] Add VisibleAgent[step] to Friends[] [17] Start Consuming Resource [18] Set Guiding flag to TRUE [19] Set Renting flag TRUE [20] Exit Loop [21] End If [22] End If [23] End Loop [24] End If [25] End If [26] End If /* The second part is to take care current trips and ending trips */ /* if agent is guiding do the bookkeeping */ [27] If Guiding is TRUE Then [28] DayCount = DayCount + 1 /* if the trip is over take care of business */ [29] If DayCount = TripLength Then [30] Wealth = Wealth + (TripLength * NumClients) [31] If Renting is TRUE Then [32] ReturnRentedBurros to Friends[who rented burros] [33] Pay Friends[who rented burros] for Rent [34] Set Renting flag FALSE [35] End If [36] Set Guiding flag FALSE [37] End If [38] End If
Figure 5. Example for the emerging cooperative behavior of 800 agents (simulation run No.201; all defaults; 1100 iterations) |
/* first check to see if noise will not change the cooperation status */ [1] If RandomNumber(0-1) > CoopNoise Then /* make sure we have the minimum agents in view required (3 including self) */ [2] AgentsVisible[array] = AgentsVisibleMoore within NormVision include Self [3] While Size AgentsVisible[] < 3 THEN [4] IF NORMVISION < GRIDSIZE THEN [5] NORMVISION = NormVision + 1 [6] AgentsVisible[array] = AgentsVisibleMoore within NormVision include Self [7] Else [8] Break While [9] End If [10] End While /* get values for plus and minus one from NormVision */ [11] MoreAgentsVisible[array] = AgentsVisibleMoore Within (NormVision + 1) include Self [12] LessAgentsVisible[array] = AgentsVisibleMoore Within (NormVision - 1) include Self /* If the frequency is different with NormVision plus one, then increase NormVision and use the higher NormVision to base decision about changing cooperation status */ [13] If Abs(FreqCooperation(MoreAgentsVisible[array]) - FreqCooperation(AgentsVisible[array])) > CoopCutOffFreq Then [14] If NormVision < GRIDSIZE THEN [15] NORMVISION = NormVision + 1 [16] ChangeCooperationFlag if different from norm shown in FreqCooperation(MoreAgentsVisible[array]) /* takes care of case where we cannot look further */ [17] Else [18] ChangeCooperationFlag if different from norm shown in FreqCooperation(AgentsVisible[array]) [19] End If /* If the frequency is the same with NormVision minus one, then decrease NormVision and use the lower NormVision to base decision about changing cooperation status */ [20] Else [21] If Abs(FreqCooperation(LessAgentsVisible[array]) - FreqCooperation(AgentsVisible[array])) < CoopCutOffFreq Then [22] NormVision = NormVision -1 [23] ChangeCooperationFlag if different from norm shown in FreqCooperation(LessAgentsVisible[array]) /* takes care of case where NormVision will be used to make decision */ [24] Else [25] ChangeCooperationFlag if different from norm shown in FreqCooperation(AgentsVisible[array]) [26] End If [27] End If /* Change due to noise factor */ [18] Else [19] ChangeCooperationFlag Random [20] End If
modelName | InitialConfig.txt | The file to be loaded with the load command. It contains all initial parameters, locations, and characteristics of all players (agents, agencies, and tourists). |
modelName | Settings.txt | This file is for documentation only and is a formatted list of initial parameters. |
modelName | <iteration#>Agents.txt | This file is simply the list of agents with their characteristics. It is formatted to be easily opened with Excel or other graphing software (space delimited). |
modelName | <iteration#> | This is the Social Network matrix formatted to be easily used with social network analysis software (DL files; space delimited). |
Figure 6. Example of coop-butterfly effect (100 agents, all defaults, 120 iterations) |
All simulation runs (N = 13) were started from the same init-config file with the same starting agents, agencies, and tourists. With different random number seeds for the two simulations we can see a good example of the butterfly effect.
Figure 7. Animation of an evolving network |
The executable files for "ArrierosAlife" can be downloaded from http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/voelkerkunde/forsch/peru/initial-0.htm
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